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Title: Optimization of Aqueous Extraction of Polyphenols from Cuminum cyminum Seeds Using Response Surface Methodology and Assessment of Biological Activity
Authors: El Tannir, Hana
Houhou, Diana
Debs, Esperance 
Koubaa, Mohamed
Jammoul, Adla
Azakir, Bilal
Khalil, Mahmoud I
El Darra, Nada
Louka, Nicolas
Affiliations: Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Beirut P.O. Box 11-5020, Lebanon
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut P.O. Box 11-5020, Lebanon
Department of Biology 
Université de Technologie de Compiègne, ESCOM, TIMR (Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter), Centre de Recherche Royallieu, CS 60319, CEDEX, 60203 Compiègne, France
Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Food Department, Beirut P.O. Box 2611, Lebanon
Molecular and Translational Medicine Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Beirut Arab University, Beirut P.O. Box 11-5020, Lebanon
Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21568, Egypt
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut P.O. Box 11-5020, Lebanon
Centre d’Analyses et de Recherche, Unité de Recherche Technologies et Valorisation Agro-Alimentaire, Faculté des Sciences, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut P.O. Box 17-5208, Lebanon
Editors: Prof. Dr. Massimo Negrini
Keywords: Cuminum cyminum
Anticancer activity
Antimicrobial activity
Extraction optimization
Response surface methodology
Issue Date: 2024-03-21
Publisher: MDPI
Part of: Biotech
Volume: 13
Issue: 7
Start page: 1
End page: 14
Background: Cumin seeds, extracted from the plant Cuminum cyminum, are abundant in phenolic compounds and have been extensively researched for their chemical makeup and biological effects. The objective of this research is to enhance the water extraction of polyphenols through the water bath (WB) technique and to evaluate the antiradical, antibacterial, and anticancer effects of the extract. (2) Methods: Response Surface Methodology was used to find the best parameters to extract polyphenols. Three experimental parameters, time, temperature, and solid-liquid ratio, were tested. The disc diffusion method has been used to determine the antimicrobial activities against Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The antiradical activity was performed using the DPPH method, while total phenolic content was performed using Folin–Ciocalteu. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was conducted to analyze the phytochemical profile of WB extracts. The anticancer activity of the lyophilized extract was assessed against three cancer cell lines (colon (HT29), lung (A549), and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines).; (3) Results: The optimal conditions for water extraction were 130 min at 72 °C. The total phenolic compounds yield (14.7 mg GAE/g DM) and antioxidant activity (0.52 mg trolox eq./mL) were obtained using a 1:40 solid–liquid ratio. The primary polyphenols identified were the flavonoids rutin (0.1 ppm) and ellagic acid (3.78 ppm). The extract had no antibacterial or antifungal activities against the microorganisms tested. The extract showed anticancer activity of about 98% against MCF7 (breast cancer cell line), about 81% against HT29 (colon cancer cell line), and 85% against A549 (lung cancer cell line) at high doses. (4) Conclusions: Extraction time and a high solid–liquid ratio had a positive impact on polyphenol recovery and in maintaining their quantity and quality. Furthermore, the optimal aqueous extract exhibited strong antiradical activity reflected by the inhibition of free radicals in addition to a significant specificity against the tested cancer cell lines.
DOI: 10.3390/biotech13010007
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Biology

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