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Title: Towards minimizing wear by improving antiwear additives and surface characteristics using reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil under boundary lubrication
Authors: Nehme, Gabi 
Ghalambor, Saeed
Affiliations: Department of Mechanical Engineering 
Keywords: Wear
Engine oils
Extreme pressure
TiF3 additives
FeF3 additives
Boundary condition
Idling speed
Subjects: Coatings
Issue Date: 2016
Part of: Emerald publications
Volume: 68
Issue: 1
Start page: 16
End page: 29
Purpose – This study aims to examine the effect of the antiwear resistance of plain zinc-dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil in the presence of Titanium-fluoride/iron-fluoride/polytetrafluoroethylene (TiF3/FeF3/PTFE) in the time to tribofilm breakdown and extent of wear under extreme boundary lubrication using a contact load of 317 Newton and a rotational speed of 700 rpm to simulate the cold start of a car engine. The mechanism of tribofilm formation and breakdown was followed carefully by monitoring the friction coefficient for different surface roughnesses over the duration of several reproducible tests that were performed in a ball on cylinder tribometer. Design/methodology/approach – The heating time of the cylinder dipped in the specified lubricant blend then set for one minute before testing and the break in period of 2 minutes to cool the contacting metal to metal surfaces during tribological testing played important roles in minimizing friction and wear, and are directly proportional to the durability and time for breakdown of the tribofilm. This article addresses the improvement of water drop contact angles for different surfaces during heat treatment and the tribological enhancement of antiwear additives when optimum concentration of fluorinated catalysts and PTFE is used in connection with reduced surface roughness and break in period. Findings – Design of Experiment software, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used in this study to evaluate the antiwear resistance films when using 0.05 per cent phosphorus ZDDP plain oil with 0.5 weight per cent TiF3 0.5 weight per cent FeF3 2 weight per cent PTFE and when applying 2 minutes break in time to cool down the contacting bodies when temperature rises. Results indicated that the coated film on the thermally treated surfaces that is reflected as white patches on the SEM images is a function of the antiwear additives contribution, it is also shown to have positive influence on the friction and wear performances during tribological testing. Originality/value – This research involved the study of lubricant and surface interactions with antiwear additives under boundary lubrication and extreme pressure loading. Several researchers studied these effects and submitted articles to the journal. This is the first time that a break in period was used with surface conditions to simulate car stops in heavy traffic conditions.
DOI: 10.1108/ILT-07-2015-0109
Ezproxy URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Mechanical Engineering

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