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Title: Muramyl-dipeptide-induced mitochondrial proton leak in macrophages is associated with upregulation of uncoupling protein 2 and the production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species
Authors: Khoury, Takla El
Bahr, George M. 
Echtay, Karim 
Affiliations: Department of Biology 
Faculty of Medicine 
Faculty of Medicine 
Issue Date: 2011
Part of: FEBS journal
Volume: 278
Issue: 17
Start page: 3054
End page: 3064
The synthetic immunomodulator muramyl dipeptide (MDP) has been shown to induce, in vivo, mitochondrial proton leak. In the present work, we extended these findings to the cellular level and confirmed the effects of MDP in vitro on murine macrophages. The macrophage system was then used to analyse the mechanism of the MDP-induced mitochondrial proton leak. Our results demonstrate that the cellular levels of superoxide anion and nitric oxide were significantly elevated in response to MDP. Moreover, isolated mitochondria from cells treated with MDP presented a significant decrease in respiratory control ratio, an effect that was absent following treatment with a non-toxic analogue such as murabutide. Stimulation of cells with MDP, but not with murabutide, rapidly upregulates the expression of the mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and pretreatment with vitamin E attenuates upregulation of UCP2. These findings suggest that the MDP-induced reactive species upregulate UCP2 expression in order to counteract the effects of MDP on mitochondrial respiratory efficiency.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08226.x
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Biology

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