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Title: Occurrence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fogwater at Urban, Suburban, and Rural Sites in Northeast France between 2015 and 2021
Authors: Khoury, Dani
Millet, Maurice
Jabali, Yasmine 
Delhomme, Olivier
Affiliations: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Keywords: Diagnostic ratio
Inter-site variability
Persistent organic pollutants
Principal component analysis
Simultaneous events
Strasbourg metropolitan
Issue Date: 2024-03-01
Publisher: MDPI
Part of: Atmosphere
Volume: 15
Issue: 3
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist in the atmosphere in the vapor and particulate phases, as well as in solubilized form in fog/rain/cloud waters. In the current paper, fogwater samples are collected during 42 events between 2015 and 2021 at four different sites (Strasbourg, Geispolsheim, Erstein, Cronenbourg) in the Alsace region. Organics are extracted using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) supported on a solid cartridge (XTR Chromabond), and then analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The total PAHs and PCBs concentrations in fog samples vary between 0.58 and 6.7 µg L−1 (average of 2.70 µg L−1), and 0.14 and 15.5 µg L−1 (average of 2.75 µg L−1). Low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant and highly detectable compared to high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs, while pentachloro-biphenyls are the dominant PCB congener. The PAHs and PCBs concentrations have increased over the sampling years at all sites, except for a slight decrease in PCBs level at Geispolsheim. A diagnostic ratio (DR) and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied to suggest potential contamination sources at Strasbourg metropolitan. Their results reveal that PAHs derive from a mixture of pyrogenic activities, while PCBs mainly come from industrial activities. The results also reveal, in some cases, inter-site variability for simultaneous and successive fog events.
DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030291
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

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