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Title: Toxoplasmosis: Current and Emerging Parasite Druggable Targets
Authors: Hajj, Rana El
Tawk, Lina 
Itani, Shaymaa
Hamie, Maguy
Ezzeddine, Jana
El Sabban, Marwan
El Hajj, Hiba
Affiliations: Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences 
Keywords: Acute toxoplasmosis
Antiparasitic drugs
Chronic toxoplasmosis
Immunomodulatory drugs
Parasite therapeutic targets
Issue Date: 2021
Part of: Microorganisms
Volume: 9
Issue: 12
Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent disease affecting a wide range of hosts including approximately one-third of the human population. It is caused by the sporozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), which instigates a range of symptoms, manifesting as acute and chronic forms and varying from ocular to deleterious congenital or neuro-toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis may cause serious health problems in fetuses, newborns, and immunocompromised patients. Recently, associations between toxoplasmosis and various neuropathies and different types of cancer were documented. In the veterinary sector, toxoplasmosis results in recurring abortions, leading to significant economic losses. Treatment of toxoplasmosis remains intricate and encompasses general antiparasitic and antibacterial drugs. The efficacy of these drugs is hindered by intolerance, side effects, and emergence of parasite resistance. Furthermore, all currently used drugs in the clinic target acute toxoplasmosis, with no or little effect on the chronic form. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on the currently used and emergent drugs and their respective parasitic targets to combat toxoplasmosis. We will also abridge the repurposing of certain drugs, their targets, and highlight future druggable targets to enhance the therapeutic efficacy against toxoplasmosis, hence lessening its burden and potentially alleviating the complications of its associated diseases.
ISSN: 2076-2607
DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms9122531
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences

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