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Title: Friction and wear reductions in fluorinated plain and fully formulated oils through enhanced heating time using moderate loading under boundary lubrication conditions
Authors: Nehme, Gabi 
Affiliations: Department of Mechanical Engineering 
Keywords: Extreme pressure
TiF3 additives
FeF3 additives
Boundary condition
Issue Date: 2016
Part of: Lubrication science journal
Volume: 28
Issue: 5
Start page: 281
End page: 298
The use of fluorinated mix catalyst (titanium fluoride: TiF3 + iron fluoride: FeF3) with polytetrafluoroethylene: PTFE in engine oil is increasingly a strategy to improve fuel economy and component durability to simultaneously provide low friction and excellent wear protection. The influence of these additives shows promising results during load bearing capacity testing and long‐term durability experiments. This paper addresses the enhancement of friction and wear performances of 0.1% and 0.05% phosphorus plain zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil and fully formulated engine oil when heated to 100°C for specific time under thermal and tribological conditions for moderate pressure loading (1.9 GPa Hertzian pressure or 180 N) which simulate the cold start of a car under 700 rpm rotational speed or the valve trains loading where most of the ZDDP are applied. Tests were performed in a ball on cylinder tribometer under boundary lubrication conditions. Surface analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the anti‐wear additives (2 wt. % PTFE + 0.5 wt. % FeF3 + .5 wt. % TiF3) provided excellent wear protection to 0.1% phosphorus plain and fully formulated oil when cylinder is immersed in the desired lubricant and heated for a predetermined time but performed poorly in 0.05% phosphorus fully formulated oil under the same conditions. The transform of anti‐wear coated material to the worn surfaces, which was a function of the anti‐wear performance of additives, was shown to have an influence on friction performance. The wear reducing effect, which was observed in fluorinated additives tribological tests, indicated a positive contribution and good tribofilm formations.
DOI: 10.1002/ls.1331
Ezproxy URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Mechanical Engineering

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