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Title: Quantification, Prevalence, and Pretreatment Methods of Mycotoxins in Groundnuts and Tree Nuts: An Update
Authors: Hellany, Heba
Assaf, Jean claude 
El-Badan, Dalia
Khalil, Mahmoud
Affiliations: Department of Chemical Engineering 
Keywords: Mycotoxins
Pretreatment processes
Issue Date: 2023-12-01
Publisher: MDPI
Part of: Processes
Volume: 11
Issue: 12
Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced as secondary metabolites by certain types of filamentous fungi under specific conditions. The contamination of nuts and nut-related products with mycotoxins is a significant global concern due to their severe consequences on human health, including carcinogenicity and immunosuppression. Aflatoxins, with a particular emphasis on aflatoxin B1, are the most common and toxic mycotoxins found in human food. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is known to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, global food regulatory organizations have established permissible levels for mycotoxins in nuts. Numerous methodologies have been developed for the detection of mycotoxins in nuts. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) have shown clear benefits in terms of effectiveness and sensitivity. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the major mycotoxins found in nuts, their physiological effects, and their worldwide prevalence. Additionally, the review will focus on nut sample pretreatment methods, analytical techniques employed for mycotoxin detection in nuts, and recent advancements in materials and solvents used for this purpose. Significant gaps exist in mycotoxin detection in nuts, including methodological variability and insufficient data from certain nut-producing countries that need further exploration in the future.
DOI: 10.3390/pr11123428
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Chemical Engineering

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