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Title: The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model
Authors: Karam, Elie 
Srinivasan, RS
Charles, JB
Fortney , SM
Affiliations: Department of Electrical Engineering 
Issue Date: 1994
Part of: Journal of gravitational physiology
Volume: 1
Issue: 1
Start page: 96
End page: 97
Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Electrical Engineering

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