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Title: Radiation and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Combination Therapy for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Authors: Chami, Perla
Diab, Youssef
Khalil, Danny N
Azhari, Hassan
Jarnagin, William R
Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K
Harding, James J
Hajj, Joseph
Ma, Jennifer
El Homsi, Maria
Reyngold, Marsha
Crane, Christopher
Hajj, Carla
Affiliations: Faculty of Medicine 
Faculty of Medicine 
Keywords: Combination therapy
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Immune checkpoint inhibitors
Radiation therapy
Issue Date: 2023-11-26
Publisher: National Library of Medicine
Part of: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume: 24
Issue: 23
The liver tumor immune microenvironment has been thought to possess a critical role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors, for several types of cancers, including HCC, liver metastases have shown evidence of resistance or poor response to immunotherapies. Radiation therapy (RT) has displayed evidence of immunosuppressive effects through the upregulation of immune checkpoint molecules post-treatment. However, it was revealed that the limitations of ICIs can be overcome through the use of RT, as it can reshape the liver immune microenvironment. Moreover, ICIs are able to overcome the RT-induced inhibitory signals, effectively restoring anti-tumor activity. Owing to the synergetic effect believed to arise from the combination of ICIs with RT, several clinical trials are currently ongoing to assess the efficacy and safety of this treatment for patients with HCC.
ISSN: 16616596
DOI: 10.3390/ijms242316773
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine

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