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Title: Immunotherapy and immunoevasion of colorectal cancer
Authors: Al Zein, Mohammad
Boukhdoud, Mona
Shammaa, Hadi
Mouslem, Hadi
El Ayoubi, Lemir Majed
Iratni, Rabah
Issa, Khodr
Khachab, Maha 
Assi, Hazem I
Sahebkar, Amirhossein
Eid, Ali H
Affiliations: Faculty of Medicine 
Keywords: CTLA-4
Adoptive cell therapy
Cancer vaccines
Colorectal cancer
Immune checkpoint inhibitor
Issue Date: 2023-09
Publisher: Elsevier
Part of: Drug Discovery Today
Volume: 28
Issue: 9
The tremendous success of immunotherapy in clinical trials has led to its establishment as a new pillar of cancer therapy. However, little clinical efficacy has been achieved in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer (MSS-CRC), which constitutes most CRC tumors. Here, we discuss the molecular and genetic heterogeneity of CRC. We review the immune escape mechanisms, and focus on the latest advances in immunotherapy as a treatment modality for CRC. By providing a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the molecular mechanisms underlying immunoevasion, this review offers an insight into developing therapeutic strategies that are effective for patients with various subsets of CRC.
ISSN: 13596446
DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2023.103669
Ezproxy URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine

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