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Title: The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys
Authors: Fayyad, John
Sampson, Nancy A
Hwang, Irving
Adamowski, Tomasz
Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
Al-Hamzawi, Ali
Andrade, Laura H S G
Borges, Guilherme
de Girolamo, Giovanni
Florescu, Silvia
Gureje, Oye
Haro, Josep Maria
Hu, Chiyi
Karam, Elie G
Lee, Sing
Navarro-Mateu, Fernando
O'Neill, Siobhan
Pennell, Beth-Ellen
Piazza, Marina
Posada-Villa, José
Ten Have, Margreet
Torres, Yolanda
Xavier, Miguel
Zaslavsky, Alan M
Kessler, Ronald C
Affiliations: Faculty of Medicine 
Keywords: ADHD
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Disability epidemiology
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: National Library of Medicine
Part of: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Volume: 9
Issue: 1
Start page: 47
End page: 65
We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.
ISSN: 18666116
DOI: 10.1007/s12402-016-0208-3
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine

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