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Title: Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Updates on Classification and Treatment in 2021
Authors: Bou Zerdan, Maroun
Ghorayeb, Tala
Saliba, Fares
Allam, Sabine
Bou Zerdan, Morgan
Yaghi, Marita
Bilani, Nadeem
Jaafar, Rola
Nahleh, Zeina
Affiliations: Faculty of Medicine 
Keywords: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors
Immune checkpoint inhibitors
Triple negative breast neoplasms
Issue Date: 2022-02-28
Part of: Cancers
Volume: 14
Issue: 5
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy affecting women. It is a highly heterogeneous disease broadly defined by the differential expression of cell surface receptors. In the United States, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents 15 to 20% of all BC. When compared with other subtypes of BC, TNBC tends to present in younger women, and has a higher mortality rate of 40% in advanced stages within the first 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC has historically had limited treatment options when compared to other types of BC. The mainstay of treatment for TNBC remains cytotoxic chemotherapy despite the emergence of new biologic and targeted agents. Defining the specific tumor molecular profile including PDL-1 and androgen receptor testing is expanding treatment options in the clinical setting. Identifying more targetable, novel biomarkers that may better define therapeutic targets or prognostic markers is currently underway. TNBC nomenclature is expected to be updated in favor of other nomenclature which would help direct therapy, and further redefine TNBC's heterogeneity. Given the continuous advances in the field of TNBC, this review assesses the latest developments in basic characterization, subtyping, and treatment of TNBC, including novel drug developments with antibody-drug conjugates, immune checkpoint inhibitors, PARP inhibitors and androgen receptor targeted agents. Future trials are necessary in the face of these innovations to further support the use of new therapies in TNBC and the detection of the appropriate biomarkers.
ISSN: 2072-6694
DOI: 10.3390/cancers14051253
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine

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