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|Title:||Understanding the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacilli in the middle east using a one health approach||Authors:||Dandachi, Iman
|Affiliations:||Faculty of Medicine||Issue Date:||2019||Part of:||Frontiers in microbiology||Volume:||10||Issue:||1941||Start page:||1||End page:||39||Abstract:||
In the last decade, extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have been extensively reported in the literature as being disseminated in humans but also in animals and the environment. These resistant organisms often cause treatment challenges due to their wide spectrum of antibiotic resistance. With the emergence of colistin resistance in animals and its subsequent detection in humans, the situation has worsened. Several studies reported the transmission of resistant organisms from animals to humans. Studies from the middle east highlight the spread of resistant organisms in hospitals and to a lesser extent in livestock and the environment. In view of the recent socio-economical conflicts that these countries are facing in addition to the constant population mobilization; we attempt in this review to highlight the gaps of the prevalence of resistance, antibiotic consumption reports, infection control measures and other risk factors contributing in particular to the spread of resistance in these countries. In hospitals, carbapenemases producers appear to be dominant. In contrast, extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) and colistin resistance are becoming a serious problem in animals. This is mainly due to the continuous use of colistin in veterinary medicine even though it is now abandoned in the human sphere. In the environment, despite the small number of reports, ESBL and carbapenemases producers were both detected. This highlights the importance of the latter as a bridge between humans and animals in the transmission chain. In this review, we note that in the majority of the Middle Eastern area, little is known about the level of antibiotic consumption especially in the community and animal farms. Furthermore, some countries are currently facing issues with immigrants, poverty and poor living conditions which has been imposed by the civil war crisis. This all greatly facilitates the dissemination of resistance in all environments. In the one health concept, this work re-emphasizes the need to have global intervention measures to avoid dissemination of antibiotic resistance in humans, animals and the environment in Middle Eastern countries.
|URI:||https://scholarhub.balamand.edu.lb/handle/uob/2688||DOI:||10.3389/fmicb.2019.01941||Ezproxy URL:||Link to full text||Type:||Journal Article|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Medicine|
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