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Title: Distribution levels of lead and cadmium within various fresh meat tissues of beef, goat and Lamb And their consumption risk assessment
Authors: Obeid, Pierre J. 
Saliba, Cherine
Younis, Mira
Nakat, John El
Affiliations: Department of Chemistry 
Department of Chemistry 
Keywords: Distribution levels
Covalent linkage
Microwave acid-assisted digestion
Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS)
Issue Date: 2016
Part of: Journal of WIT transactions on ecology and the environment
Volume: 203
Start page: 101
End page: 111
Meat is widely considered to be a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals such as iron, selenium, zinc, vitamin B. Besides consuming meat muscle tissues, it is well known that in the Mediterranean area certain populations also consume other meat tissues as the bone marrow, fats, and what is known as "Fashi" or "Maalak" which contains the kidneys, spleen, liver, heart, and lungs. In addition, muscle, liver and kidney tissues of such organisms are widely consumed raw, without any further processing. The risk arises from the fact that such meat products are obtained from organisms which in turn have accumulated toxic metals in their tissues. Therefore, levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from various fresh meat tissues of beef, goat and lamb have been determined in Lebanon for the first time. Their inter- and intra-levels distribution were assessed and compared. Their potential exposure risk from dietary intake was also studied. A total of two hundred and forty (n=240) samples of fresh meat tissues (80 beef, 80 goat and 80 lamb) were collected over a period of several months from various slaughter houses. From each type of organism, five samples of nclusion tissues (heart, liver, fat, muscle, lung, kidney, bone marrow and spleen) were taken. Each individual sample was then subdivided into subsamples for subsequent analysis and quality control purposes. High-pressure closed vessel acid-assisted microwave digestion was used to digest all samples while graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for the quantification of the toxic metals. The data showed that the mean levels of Pb in goats ranged from 2.66 to 69.84 μg/Kg for the various tissues studied. In beef, they ranged from 0.50 to 41.34 μg/Kg. While in lamb, levels ranged from 1.59 to 95.95 μg/Kg. Meanwhile, the levels for Cd ranged from 2.39 to 635.86 μg/Kg for goat, 0.55 to 173.72 μg/Kg for beef, and 1.37 to 688.95 μg/Kg for lamb. Based on the inter-level distribution of Pb and Cd in various t.
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Department of Chemistry

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