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Title: The Pathophysiology of Long COVID throughout the Renin-Angiotensin System
Authors: Khazaal, Shaymaa
Harb, Julien
Rima, Mohamad
Annweiler, Cédric
Wu, Yingliang
Cao, Zhijian
Abi Khattar, Ziad
Legros, Christian
Kovacic, Hervé
Fajloun, Ziad
Sabatier, Jean-Marc
Affiliations: Faculty of Medicine 
Keywords: Angiotensin II receptor type 1
Angiotensin II receptor type 2
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
immunity disorders
Infectious disease
Renin-angiotensin system
Issue Date: 2022-01-02
Publisher: National Library of Medicine
Part of: Molecules
Volume: 27
Issue: 9
COVID-19 has expanded across the world since its discovery in Wuhan (China) and has had a significant impact on people's lives and health. Long COVID is a term coined by the World Health Organization (WHO) to describe a variety of persistent symptoms after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Long COVID has been demonstrated to affect various SARS-CoV-2-infected persons, independently of the acute disease severity. The symptoms of long COVID, like acute COVID-19, consist in the set of damage to various organs and systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, urinary, and immune systems. Fatigue, dyspnea, cardiac abnormalities, cognitive and attention impairments, sleep disturbances, post-traumatic stress disorder, muscle pain, concentration problems, and headache were all reported as symptoms of long COVID. At the molecular level, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is heavily involved in the pathogenesis of this illness, much as it is in the acute phase of the viral infection. In this review, we summarize the impact of long COVID on several organs and tissues, with a special focus on the significance of the RAS in the disease pathogenesis. Long COVID risk factors and potential therapy approaches are also explored.
DOI: 10.3390/molecules27092903
Open URL: Link to full text
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine

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