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dc.contributor.authorNajm, Simonen_US
dc.description.abstractThe motivations behind the Ottoman Empires introduction of equality among all its subjects, in the matter of military service from 1839, are controversial. Theoretically, the Ottomans presented this equality to strengthen the empire and enroll non-Muslim subjects in the defense of the empire. But in practice, the Ottomans did not want to include Christians in military service for several reasons. The enlistment of Christians was delayed for several years, and the forcible collection of badal alaskariya (military exemption tax), which started a few years after the confirmation of equality in the Khatt Humayun in 1856, led to the issue of the fifteen Orthodox men in Damascus in 1859. This case confirmed the Ottomans refusal to engage Christians in military service. It also acknowledged Christians negative response to military conscription and the payment of badal. For the imposed badal was another form of jizyya (the poll-tax levied on non-Muslims in Muslim states), but one whose amount was greater than that of the original jizyya. This study reveals the impact of military conscription and badal alaskariya on the Rum Orthodox community of Damascus between 1858 and 1862. It explores how the case, of the fifteen orthodox men, did assist in the rise of the discord between the Greek hierarchy and the Arab Orthodox Christians. It also shed the light on the aggravation of the Ottomans towards the Rum Orthodox of Damascus because of their refusal to pay the badal and their defiance to offer their men instead. Eventually, this study uncovers the relation between the badal alaskariya and the massacres of Damascus which occurred in 1860.en_US
dc.format.extent18 p.en_US
dc.subjectSyria 19th century Ottoman reformsen_US
dc.subjectChristian military conscriptionen_US
dc.subjectMilitary exemption taxen_US
dc.subjectBadal alaskariyaen_US
dc.subjectOrthodox Christiansen_US
dc.subject1860 massacresen_US
dc.subject.lcshDamascus (Syria)en_US
dc.titleChristian military conscription and badal al'askariya in damascus Syria after the tanzimaten_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute of Theologyen_US
dc.relation.ispartoftextCercetare Şi dialog teologic astazien_US
Appears in Collections:Institute of Theology
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